_If you would like to learn more about reading
disabilities and both high- and low-tech assistive technologies that
help students who struggle with reading, refer to this valuable article:
"A Review of Technology-Based Approaches for Reading Instruction: Tools for Teachers and Vendors"
published by the National Center for Technology Innovation (NCTI). This
comprehensive guide provides an introduction and background information
about reading disabilities and assistive technology in general. It then
discusses the matrix of information developed by the NCTIL. This part
is a little technical, but the article goes on to outline multiple
strategies to use adaptive technology to help struggling readers, such
as "Building Reading Skills and Comprehension,
Converting Text to Speech, Providing Text in Alternative Formats,
Providing Electronic Resources, Organizing Ideas, and Integrating
Literacy Supports in a Single Application".
Silver-Pacuilla, H. & Ruedel, K. (2004). A Review
of Technology-Based Approaches for Reading Instruction: Tools for
Researchers and Vendors. The National Center for Technology Innovation. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCYQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cited.org%2Flibrary%2Fsite%2Fdocs%2FAReviewTechnology-BasedApproaches_final.pdf&ei=-LnkTsv1JenZ0QGZxujTBQ&usg=AFQjCNFeRftKv5wBfzy7UepUTJr7WsU8rg&sig2=USPhZSFTiDDq4QsBnqyh9Q
If you are looking to learn more about tools that can be used to help children who struggle with writing check out "Using Technology to Enhance the Writing Processes of Students with Learning Disabilities." This article discusses the advantages of using technology to get students to like writing. It also talks about how for some students, it is difficult to be a successful writer without the help of even the simplest of aids. The article discusses different tools from word processors and spell checkers to aiding the planning process, which most students with learning disabilities always struggle with.
click below to download a copy of the article as a pdf.
Math If you're interested in learning more about virtual manipulatives, please download and read Virtual Manipulatives: What They Are And How Teachers Can Use Them (pdf file). This peer-reviewed article discusses ways to effectively incorporate this resource into your teaching. The authors explain that virtual manipulatives provide a way for teachers to engage students, help scaffold their understanding, and give a visual representation of abstract concepts. This article also describes the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives (NLVM), which is discussed further under the NLVM tab of this website.
Full citation: Bouch, E.C. & Flanagan, S.M. (2009). "Virtual Manipulatives: What They Are And How Teachers Can Use Them." Intervention in School and Clinic, 45, 186-191.
When we talk about AT and UDL, it is most frequently within the context of literacy and math instruction. What we don't hear is how we can use UDL for science education, which is a combination of using literacy and math skills. Please read the article "Universal Design in Science Learning" in which Curry, Cohen, and Lightbody discuss the many different ways that science content can be delivered to all students within a class. This can be done by using a variety accessible media such as digital texts, accessible media, software, and websites. They also touch on how electronic interactive whiteboards and laboratory equipment can be accustomed to fit a universal design model. The article ends in two examples of how teachers made their science classes applicable to UDL.
Curry , C., Cohen, L. & Lightbody, N. (2006, March). Universal design in science learning. The Science Teacher, 73(3), 32-37. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/hww/results/external_link_maincontentframe.jhtml?_DARGS=/hww/results/results_common.jhtml.44
If you are interested in learning more about a universally designed environment as well as universally designed assessments, take a look at the article "Universal Design Applied to Large Scale Assessments". This scholarly article describes the benefits of the implementation of universal instruction as well as universal assessment. By eliminating the barriers set in front of learners who struggle with assessment, they are capable of reaching great potentials. "Universally designed instruction provides a way to establish optimal conditions for learning for all students" (Thompson, Johnstone, Thurlow, 2002). The implementation of the suggested study tools on this site could lead to possible improvement in assessment performance.
Full Citation: Thompson,S. J,Johnstone, C.J., & Thurlow, M.L (2002) Universal design applied to large scale assessment (Synthesis Report 44). Minneapolis, MN:University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes. Retrieved from [12-11-11], from the world wide web: http://education.umn.edu/NCEO/OnlinePubs/Synthesis44.html